Each of two particular inspection systems that are based on different principles would detect all product flaws but would also erroneously reject three percent of flawless products.Assuming there is no overlap between the products erroneously rejected by the two systems and also no interference between the systems if both operate，using both systems and rejecting only those products found flawed by both would be a way of avoiding all erroneous rejections.
Which of the following most precisely characterizes the reasoning in the argument？
（A）The reasoning is conclusive，that is，the conclusion cannot be false if the statements offered in its support are true.
（B）The reasoning is strong but not conclusive，if the statements offered in support of the conclusion are true，they provide good grounds for that conclu-sion，though it is possible that additional infor-mation might weaken the argument.
（C）The reasoning is weak; the statements offered in support of the conclusion，though relevant to it，by themselves provide at best inadequate grounds for the conclusion.
（D）The reasoning is flawed in that the conclusion is no more than a paraphrase of one of the pieces of evidence offered in its support.
（E）The reasoning is flawed in that the argument treats evidence that a factor is necessary to bring about an event as if it were evidence that the factor is sufficient to bring about that event.
In recent years，there has been a dramatic decline in the population of the shrike，a predatory bird that inhabits flat land，such as farms and pastures.Some ornithologists hypothesize that this decline is due to the introduction of new，more effective pesticides to control the insect species on which shrikes prey.
The answer to which of the following questions is NOT relevant to evaluating the ornithologists‘ hypothesis？
（A）Was there a decline in the shrike population before the new pesticides were first used？
（B）Have shrike populations declined significantly in those habitats where the new pesticides have not been used？
（C）Have the new pesticides more significantly reduced the population of insect species on which shrikes prey than did the pesticides previously used？
（D）Are insects that have consumed the new pesti-cides more toxic to the shrikes that eat those insects than were insects that consumed the less effective pesticides？
（E）Are the new pesticides considered by most people to be less harmful to the environment than the old pesticides were considered to be？
Certain extremely harmful bacteria found only in sewage are difficult to detect directly.Testing for E.coli，an easily detected and less harmful type of bacteria，in ocean water would be a reliable way of determining whether or not these more harmful bac-teria are present，since ocean water contains E.Coli only if the water is contaminated with sewage that contains the harmful bacteria.
Which of the following，if true，most seriously weakens the argument？
（A）There are many different strains of the E.coli bacteria，and only some of these strains are harmful.
（B）Some types of bacteria found in sewage are neither disease-causing nor difficult to detect directly.
（C）Some of the types of bacteria found in sewage along with E.coli are not harmful to people unless the bacteria are ingested in large quantities.
（D）E.coli dies out much more quickly than some of the more harmful bacteria found in sewage and then can no longer be easily detected.
（E）Some of the types of bacteria found in sewage along with E.coli reproduce at a slower rate than E.coli
For more than fifty years， many evolutionary biologists posited that early fish such as Eusthenopteron developed limbs as a result of the need to drag themselves across short distances when their watery habitats dried up during periods of drought. However， new fossil evidence suggests that this hypothesis is incorrect. Fossilized remains of Acanthostega， a primitive fish， reveal that even though the animal had rudimentary limbs， it could not walk on land. Acanthostega lacked ankles， which means that its limbs couldn’t support its weight; furthermore， its ribs were too short to prevent the organism’s chest cavity from collapsing once the animal left water.
1. Which of the following would most strengthen the author’s argument？
A. The fossilized remains of the Acanthostega are the earliest known evidence of early fish.
B. The modem descendants of Acanthostega are not able to drag themselves across short distances on land.
C. Biologists have found that some aquatic species can successfully drag themselves across land even though these species do not possess ankles.
D. Any animal with a collapsed chest cavity is not able to survive long enough to travel even a short distance across land.
E. Some evolutionary biologists believe that the new fossils are not from Acanthostega.
Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced， without oxygen，
through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine
triphosphate （ATP）， the energy provider. The amount of energy that can be
produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all
vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles’ wet weight. Thus the anaerobic
energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal. If， for
example， some predators had attacked a 100-ton dinosaur， normally torpid， the
dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously， via
anaerobic glycolysis， the energy of 3，000 humans at maximum oxidative
metabolic energy production.
1. The passage‘s suggestion that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate‘s size is based on which of the following assumption？
（A） larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates
（B） larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates
（C） the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size
（D） the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size
（E） the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize
解析：文本是关于无氧糖酵解产生能量的这程，且提出动物体积越大，所产生的能量储备也就越多。以恐龙为例，说明其遭遇攻击所能产生的能星之巨大。题干中问“the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate’ s size”这一论点是根据哪一条假定推断出来的，通读选项不难得出E。
In 1998 the United States Department of Transportation received nearly 10，000 consumer complaints about airlines; in 1999 it received over 20，000. Moreover， the number of complaints per 100，000 passengers also more than doubled. In both years the vast majority of complaints concerned flight delays， cancellations， mishandled baggage， and customer service. Clearly， therefore， despite the United States airline industry’s serious efforts to improve performance in these areas， passenger dissatisfaction with airline service increased significantly in 1999.
1. Which of the following， if true， most seriously weakens the argument？
A. Although the percentage of flights that arrived on time dropped slightly overall， from 77 percent in 1998 to 76 percent in 1999， some United States airlines’ 1999 on-time rate was actually better than their 1998 on-time rate.
B. The number of passengers flying on United States airlines was significantly higher in 1999 than in 1998.
C. Fewer bags per 1，000 passengers flying on United States airlines were lost or delayed in 1999 than in 1998.
D. The appearance in 1999 of many new Internet sites that relay complaints directly to the Department of Transportation has made filing a complaint about airlines much easier for consumers than ever before.
E. Although the number of consumer complaints increased for every major United States airline in 1999， for some airlines the extent of the increase was substantial， whereas for others it was extremely small.
Upon maturity， monarch butterflies travel hundreds of miles from their places of origin and lay their eggs on milkweed. The caterpillars that emerge feed on milkweed and absorb the glycosides in milkweed sap. The specific glycosides present in milkweed differ from region to region within the monarch butterfly’s range. Mature butterflies retain the glycosides in a mature monarch butterfly could be used to determine its place of origin.
Which of the following， if true， most strengthens the argument？
A. Mature monarch butterflies do not feed on parts of milkweed that contain glycosides.
B. The glycosides in milkweed sap are slightly toxic to caterpillars of other species.
C. The vast majority of the monarch butterflies that are laying eggs in a given region will have traveled there from a single region.
D. There are substances other than glycosides in milkweed sap that accumulate in a monarch caterpillar and are retained in the body of the mature butterfly.
E. There are certain glycosides that are found in the sap of all milkweeds， no matter where they grow within the monarch butterfly’s range.
只有 C 选项是加强了上文的论点。
A cave in Central America was occupied by humans for much of the period from 9，000 to 500 years ago. Archaeological excavations in the cave have discovered remains of food plants at every level of habitation， increasing from fewer than ten food plant species in the earliest （lowest） levels to over 30 species in the latest levels. Clearly， later inhabitants of the cave used a greater variety of plants as food than earlier inhabitants did.
Which of the following， if true of the cave， most weakens the argument？
（A） Some of the plant species found in the earlier （lower） levels of habitation are not found at all in the later （upper） levels of habitation.
（B） The remains of some plant species， such as squash and chili peppers， show changes from the middle to the later （upper） levels that indicate domestication.
（C） At certain points during the period from 9，000 to 500 years ago， the cave was abandoned for a time and later reoccupied by people who were probably of a different culture than the earlier inhabitants
（D） Virtually all the plant remains found at earliest （lowest） levels of habitation are tough fibers that are relatively resistant to decomposition.
（E） The total volume of food plant remains found in the earlier （lower） layers was greater than that found in the later （upper） layers.
文本大意为：中美洲的一个洞穴在之前的9000 至500 年间，有人类居住。考古学家发现其中不同时期遗留下的食物类植物。其中早期的有不到十种，后期有超过三十种。显然，后期居住者的食物种类更多。
Avionics is a portmanteau word meaning “aviation electronics.” It is a term that hasevolved over the last 40 years as airplane instrumentation has evolved from mostlymechanical to largely electronic. Today， avionics makes up the large part of the cost of any aircraft. Guidance and navigation systems are integrated. Communications includes public address systems for communicating with passengers， intercoms for communicating with flight crews， and radio or SatCom for communicating with ground personnel. In addition， planes today have weather radar， lightning detectors， automatic flight control systems， and collision-avoidance systems. All of these systems must work in tandem in order for the plane to fly.
Select one answer choice.
Which of the following inferences about avionics is best supported bythe passage？
（A） Within a decade， passenger planes will take off and land without human intervention.
（B） Soon passenger planes will include features that now appear only on military planes.
（C） Just 40 years ago， there were no electronic devices on passenger airplanes.
（D） As avionics becomes more common， the cost of manufacturing planes will decrease.
（E） A glitch in a plane‘s electrical system may be the greatest danger in flight today.
参考答案：E. 文章大意：航空设备在过去40 年的发展过程中，逐渐由大部分为航空机械设备发展成大部分为航空电子设备。故如果出现电子差错，可能导致大的危险，E 选项正确。
Many shipwrecks dating from the period between A.D. 300 and 600 have been discovered in the Ramian Sea. Well over half of those ships were carrying cargo stored in large ceramic jars， many of which were preserved largely intact on the ocean floor. During that period， such jars carried only liquid. Therefore， liquid cargo was probably carried by a majority of the cargo ships that navigated the Ramian Sea during that period.
文章大意：很多公元前300 至600 年的遇难船只在Ramian 海域被发现。一半以上的船运载的是装在陶瓷罐里的货品。这些大部分在海底保存完好。在那个时期，这种罐子只装液体。因此，当时航行在Ramian 海域的大部分货船运送的是液体货物。
The force of the evidence cites in the passage is most seriously weakened if which of the following is true？
A.For ships on the Ramian Sea during the period， a full load of liquid cargo stored in large ceramic jars was not likely to be significantly heavier than a full load of other kinds of cargo that were typical of the period.
B.There are no surviving records dating from the period that detail specific cargoes shipped across the Ramian Sea.
C.The ratio of liquid to solid cargo shipped across the Ramian Sea did not vary significantly over the period.
D.The presence of a sizable quantity of large ceramic jars on the ocean floor is so visually striking that a shipwreck of a ship carrying such jars is more likely to be noticed and reported than are shipwrecks of ships carrying other cargoes.
E.During the period， grain and other solid cargo was shipped across the Ramian Sea in containers made from material other than clay.
The Canadian elk has traditionally been limited in its geographic range by the presence of elderberries， its primary source of food， which only grow up until a certain point in the tundra. A recent rise in temperatures， however， has seen a spread in the growth of elderberries northwards into the tundra. Therefore， the overall range of the Canadian elk can be expected to increase.
Which of the following， if true， best casts doubt on the argument？
A. In addition to elderberry， the Canadian elk also consumes loganberries， which are expected to also begin growing at more northerly latitudes.
B. During the summer months， many Canadian elk are hunted both for sport and for their meat.
C. The grizzly bear， the Canadian elk’s primary predator， has also started moving north into the tundra.
D. The permafrost， the region above the tundra， in which the temperatures never reach above freezing， will unlikely see elderberry growth.
E. Increasing temperatures have created conditions too warm for elderberry growth in the southern half of the Canadian elk’s traditional territory.
答案：E。E 选项表明在elk 的传统生活领域，elderberry 因为天气原因不再生长，故Canadian elk 的生活区域将会北移，而不会扩大。
After examining the bodies of a dozen beached whales and finding evidence of bleeding around the animals’ eyes and brains as well as lesions on their kidneys and livers， environmental groups fear that the Navy’s use of sonar is causing serious harm to marine animals. A leading marine biologist reports that sonar induces whales to panic and surface too quickly， which causes nitrogen bubbles to form in their blood.
The argument above relies on which of the following assumptions？
A.Marine biologists have documented chat other marine animals， including dolphins and seaturtles， have exhibit kidney and liver lesions.
B.No studies have been conducted on the possible detrimental effects of sonar on marine animals.
C.Whales in captivity panic only when exposed to man-made， rather than natural， sound waves.
D.The presence of nitrogen bubbles in the blood has been demonstrated to cause damage to various internal organs.
The bodies of dwarf individuals of mammalian species are generally smaller in relation to those of nondwarf individuals than are the teeth of the dwarf individuals in relation to those of the nondwarf indi- viduals. Fragmentary skeletal remains of an adult dwarf woolly mammoth were recently found. The teeth are three-fourths the size of the teeth of an average adult nondwarf woolly mammoth.
The statements above， if true， most strongly support which of the following？
（A）The body of the dwarf woolly mammoth was less than three-fourths the size of the body of an average adult nondwarf woolly mammoth.
（B）None of the teeth of the dwarf woolly mammoth that were recently discovered was as large as any of the teeth of nondwarf woolly mammoths that have been discovered.
（C）The teeth of most adult dwarf individuals of mammalian species are three- fourths the size of the teeth of the adult nondwarf individuals of the same species.
（D）Dwarf woolly mammoths had the same number of teeth as did nondwarf woolly mammoths.
（E）Dwarf individuals of most mammalian species are generally no more than three-fourths the size of the adult nondwarf individuals of those species.
About 20 percent of professors at Torellia National University were not educated in Torellia. The average pay of professors at the university who were educated in Torellia is about 10 percent lower than that of professors with comparable levels of training and experience who were educated outside Torellia. These figures clearly indicate the existence of a university policy， though probably an unwritten one， of favoring foreign-educated professors over those educated in Torellia when determining salaries
Which of the following， if true，most seriously undermines the editorial’s conclusion ？
（A） The salaries of professors at the university are increasing more slowly than the salaries of people with comparable levels of training and experience employed by corporations.
（B） The business school of the university， where most of the professors who were educated outside Torellia teach， must pay high salaries to its faculty to compete with salaries available to them from corporations.
（C ）The benefits other than salary offered to the university’s professors are about the same for professors educated in Torellia as for those not educated in Torellia.
（D） The university has an explicit policy setting broad salary ranges for professors at all levels of experience.
（E ）Most of the professors at the university who were educated outside Torellia are native-born citizens of Torellia.
2. In the last few years， a drastic spike in sea temperatures around Prudhoe Bay has caused the eggs of snow crabs to hatch earlier in the year than they had previously. As a result， baby snow crabs are more likely to be caught by deep sea fishing boats， since deep sea fishing boats are more numerous in Arctic waters during the fall season than they are during the winter season.
Which of the following pieces of information is necessary to evaluate the argument？
（A） The total number of snow crabs that hatch versus the total number that had hatched before the increase in temperatures
（B） The time of year the deep sea fishing boats arrive to the waters around Prudhoe Bay
（C） The month in which the boats leave， and the month in which the snow crabs eggs hatch
（D） The amount of area the fisherman’s nets can cover in one day
（E） The amount of time the deep sea fishing boats spend in water directly above where the snow crabs are likely to hatch